The challenges in these countries can seem insurmountable. Many people living in poverty do not have enough food or clean water, not to mention access to medical care. In many developing countries, the distribution network for medicines is weak and hospitals, clinics, and healthcare professionals are scarce. In some cases, a lack of political will results in a funding crisis across all levels of the healthcare system.
Commitments and partnershipsProgress is possible. For instance, a decade ago, the international community would not have thought it possible to get more than three million HIV-infected people on antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK, London) began to implement sustainable preferential pricing for ARVs in 1997 and introduced not-for-profit pricing of ARVs for 64 of the world's poorest countries in 2001. Other organizations have established similar programs, and substantial progress has been made.
Despite this, we need to do more. Business needs to continually challenge itself to develop the products that address the needs of the world's most vulnerable groups.
GSK recognizes that we need to be more responsive, flexible, and open. We need to take risks and commit to not just meeting society's expectations, but to exceeding those expectations. In short, we need to stop thinking in terms of what we must do; and start thinking of what we can do.
No single organization has all the answers, but there are areas where industry has been making a difference in addressing the healthcare needs of the developing world. GSK, for example, has committed to develop pediatric formulations for as many of our medicines as possible. Our research and development (R&D) laboratory in Tres Cantos, Spain, is dedicated to discovering cures for diseases of the developing world, and we have invited others to join us in an "open laboratory"—a shared facility and infrastructure where researchers can collaborate.
In May 2010, we published the results of a screening of more than two million proprietary compounds that resulted in the identification of 13,533 "hits" with potential activity against malaria. These compounds are now freely available to scientists around the world for use in malaria research. GSK also launched an R&D unit in 2009 that is focused on developing products and formulations for diseases that affect populations in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. This unit champions the needs of patients in the developing world across GSK's R&D operations. In addition, we are working with external partners to deliver a product portfolio more suited for the disease burden suffered by patients in resource-poor countries.
Perhaps the greatest example of partnership as an innovative approach to global health has been the pathway that GSK has pursued with its malaria vaccine candidate, RTS,S. This vaccine was created in 1987 by scientists working at GSK Biologicals' laboratories, with early development undertaken in close collaboration with the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. In January 2001, GSK and the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI)—with grant monies from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation—entered into a public-private partnership to develop the vaccine for infants and young children in Africa. The majority of the nearly one million annual malaria deaths are among children under the age of 5 living on the continent, and thus, this is the group that would most benefit from a vaccine. Today, RTS,S is the most advanced malaria vaccine candidate in the world.
This type of partnership can encourage the private sector to engage in medicine and vaccine development for resource-poor countries. However, it is not enough to just develop new treatment options. We need to ensure that vulnerable people have access to those products.