A series of new challenges and regulatory changes, including accession to the European Union in 2007, over the past two decades
have forced the Romanian pharmaceutical industry to adapt to international and European standards, a process that has required
the investment of tens of millions of dollars. Although still small in comparison with Western European markets, the Romanian
domestic market fares well among those of its neighbors, currently ranking fifth after Russia, Poland, Hungary, and the Czech
(GAVIN HELLIER/GETTY IMAGES)
Some analysts predict the country will continue to succeed as a location for generic drug manufacturing to become the third
largest pharmaceutical market in the Eastern and Central Europe by 2015 (1). Others, however, believe the Romanian market
has stagnated. According to an October 2008 report, "Pharmaceutical Market in Romania 2008: Development Forecasts 2008–2010,"
from the Poland-based market research firm PMR, the country's pharmaceutical market grew approximately 30% per year between
2004 and 2006, but only grew 11% in 2007. PMR's estimated growth figure for 2008 was 8%, and between 2008 and 2010, that figure
is expected to be around 9.5% year over year, reaching nearly €2.4 billion ($3.6 billion) (2).
Between June 2007 and June 2008, the Romanian pharmaceutical domestic consumer market grew only 2% to approximately €1.78
million ($2.23 million), with 70% of the total value generated by mainly innovative imported drugs, according to Raiffeisen
Investment Romania, a subsidiary of the mergers and acquisitions advisory firm Raiffeisen Investment AG (3). In terms of volume,
generic drugs absorbed 70–75% of the total market during that time period (3).
"The Romanian pharmaceutical market is very dynamic, and the growth recorded in these past few years might be considered unbelievable
compared to the growth registered in the well-established markets," says Dan Zaharescu, executive director of the Romanian
Association of International Drug Manufacturers, a trade association. Still, the market has experienced a decline compared
with previous years, and its future is uncertain.
The Romanian government continues to play a critical role in the market's transformation. Although "relations between the
pharmaceutical industry and the government are good," says Zaharescu, on occasion, the control that the authorities exert
in price policies for retailers, for example, has resulted in big losses for the sector. In an import-dominated market, fluctuating
exchange rates are a risk and, even though current legislation states that drug prices should be adjusted to reflect exchange
rates on a quarterly basis, the government has not enforced the rule since 2007, possibly because of the country's 2008 elections
(3). Along with the country's depreciated currency, many importers and drug companies have experienced huge, unnecessary losses
as a result. Some companies went as far as refusing to deliver drugs to pharmacies for several days in April 2008 in an attempt
to compel the authorities to enforce the price adjustments (3).
Another government initiative likely to affect the industry negatively has to do with acceptable markups for distribution
and retail. In the past, wholesalers were allowed to add a 7.5% distribution margin and an 8.5% margin for import activities.
The government wants to eliminate the import percentage because as an EU-member nation, Romania enjoys negligible import costs
when bringing in goods from other EU nations. "The pricing regulation is penalizing the local pharmaceutical industry, without
bringing significant advantages for the healthcare system," says Zaharescu.
In addition, the government continues to favor large multinational companies by regulating prescription rules to provide more
benefits for the use of branded products. In the past, for example, a pharmacist was able to offer a patient all available
products within an INN (international nonproprietary name) class. Under the new laws, pharmacists are not allowed to do this,
and patients must ask their doctor to add a note to prescriptions to indicate preference for a generic drug.