The full version of this tabletting feature can be read in the June issue of our digital magazine: http://www.pharmtech.com/ptedigital0610
Granulation is the most crucial step in the manufacture of solid dosage forms because it provides the main physical modification
to the product bulk that affects the rest of the production downstream and, of course, the characteristics of the final form.
There are three main types of granulation: direct compression, dry granulation and wet granulation.
Direct compression is a process that is becoming more and more important, and is the first choice of every technologist developing
a new product because it requires simpler industrial equipment and allows productivity to be improved. However, not all formulas
can be processed in this way because excipients for direct compression, known as diluent-binders, need to have good flowability,
excellent compressibility and a specific particle size distribution to ensure uniform mixing.
Dry granulation creates granules by roller compaction of the powder blend with low pressures. The compacted material is then
broken and sized gently to produce agglomerates. This process is often used when powders are sensitive to moisture or heat.
Dry granulation is a simpler process than wet granulation in terms of process flow and room layout, which reduces manufacturing
costs. However, dry granulation requires drugs or excipients with cohesive properties to help the formation of granules and
so may not be suitable for all formulations. Additionally, it may sometimes produce a higher percentage of fine granules,
which can compromise tablet quality or create other issues.
In wet granulation, a liquid binder is used to agglomerate the powder particles into granules using a highshear mixer granulator.
The amount of liquid must be properly controlled because over-wetting will cause the granules to be too hard while under-wetting
will cause them to be too soft and friable. Wet granules are sized through a mill and then dried in a fluid bed or oven. In
most cases, further sizing of the dry granules is required.
Wet granulation is the most widely-used technology for granulation, even though it consists of many steps and product transfer,
which increases production costs. It is the most flexible granulation technology available because it can handle the majority
of formulations and it is also very suitable for multi-production. Wet granulation can also be conducted as a singlepot process
(granulator-dryer), involving a fluid bed with liquid spraying system. This process is especially suitable for high productivity
or highshear mixer vacuum dryers and is highly recommended for the handling of high potency formulas.
The problems with change
Because granulation is such a critical manufacturing step, pharmaceutical companies seldom take any risk of technology change,
especially for existing proven products, even when there may be opportunities for process improvement.
The pharmaceutical industry is always hesitant to introduce innovative systems into the manufacturing sector. One reason for
this that is often cited in the pharma field is regulatory uncertainty, which has resulted from the perception that the regulatory
system is rigid and unfavourable to the implementation of innovative systems; for example, several manufacturing procedures, including granulation, are often treated as static procedures and process changes are managed through regulatory submissions.
Nevertheless, pharmaceutical manufacturing has continued to gradually evolve with increasing interest in science and engineering
principles. The most recent innovations concerning granulation technologies do not directly involve granulation principles;
instead, they take into account aspects related to regulatory issues and safety and toxicity concerns that are becoming ever
In 2004, the FDA issued the PAT initiative aimed at developing an integrated approach to regulate pharmaceutical product quality.
One of the recurrent themes of the initiative was "quality by design" — "quality cannot be tested into products; it should
be built in or should be by design".1 This document starts from the axiom "quality by design" and tries to articulate the aforementioned stringent instances expressed
by drug manufacturers.
Significant innovation in process control has been brought about by introducing the latest generation of sensors (NIR, FRBM,
acoustic detectors, etc.) for better process understanding and the detection of process end-point to comply with the latest
regulatory guidelines, based on risk analysis and the PAT approach.
Meanwhile, with regards to safety and toxicity concerns, more attention has been paid to process containment to minimise operational
exposure level and cross contamination by rationalising the room layout or introducing new product transfer systems, which
can achieve OEB 5 when working in containment. Additionally, more sophisticated CIP devices, such as selfcleaning stainless
steel filters for fluid bed and self-cleaning sampling devices, have helped reduce cleaning time and improve cleaning reproducibility.