Chapter 2.9.40 of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) is the binding requirement for dosage uniformity. Recently, an additional alternative chapter 2.9.47 has been created titled
"Demonstration of Uniformity of Dosage Units using large Sample Sizes." PharmTech spoke to Susanne Keitel of the European Pharmacopoeia Commission about the alternative chapter.
PharmTech: How are scored tablets approached in Ph. Eur.?
Keitel: The general chapter, 'Uniformity of Dosage Units,' deals with intact tablets and does not include acceptance criteria for
scored tablets. However, the Ph. Eur. Commission decided to include requirements on the uniformity of scored tablets in the
'Production' section of the general monograph Tablets several years ago. The subsection 'Subdivision of tablets' describes
how the uniformity of scored tablets should be tested and defines acceptance criteria. These requirements were established
in close collaboration with licensing authorities of the Ph. Eur. member states.
PharmTech: The European Pharmacopoeia has created an additional alternative chapter 2.9.47. Could you tell us more?
Keitel: Chapter 2.9.40 (Uniformity of dosage units) of the European Pharmacopoeia is based on the text harmonized with the US Pharmacopeia and the Japanese Pharmacopeia in the context of the Pharmacopoeial
Discussion Group (PDG), and this will remain the binding requirement. Recently, however, the Ph.Eur. Commission created an
additional alternative chapter 2.9.47 titled 'Demonstration of Uniformity of Dosage Units using Large Sample Sizes,' which
is intended for, but not limited to, the evaluation of medicinal products that are manufactured using process analytical technology
(PAT) methodology. Compliance with general chapter 2.9.40 Uniformity of dosage units can be demonstrated by using the procedures
described in chapter 2.9.47. This new chapter was published in October 2012 in supplement 7.7, and will become official in
The chapter allows applicants to use information obtained during the production of tablets, such as from in-line testing by
near infrared, to assess the content uniformity of the batch. Background information on this new chapter and the rationale
behind can be found in additional articles (1, 2)
PharmTech: How can the number of largely deviating units be reduced, and what guidance on the tableting process as a whole can you offer
to manufacturers of scored tablets?
Keitel: The uniformity of scored tablets depends on the formulation of the tablet itself, including its geometry and hardness and
the geometry of the break-line. Hence, specific attention to scorability needs to be paid during the development of both the
formulation and manufacturing process. This process is an example of quality by design: the scorability needs to be built
into the tablet. This is also acknowledged by the Ph.Eur. and EU regulators, as demonstration of uniformity of halved tablets
is only required during development and not as a routine release test.
1. O. Holte and M.Horvat, Pharmeuropa 23.2., 286–293 (2011)
2. O. Holte and M. Horvat, Pharm Technol. 36 (10) 118–122 (2012).