Drugmakers rely on automated equipment as a matter of course. Yet unlike the food and semiconductor industries, the pharmaceutical
industry has been slow to adopt one particular form of automation: robots. The hesitation has partly resulted from a lack
of expertise, the perceived high initial cost of robotics, and the misperception that robotic systems are too complex and
require complicated programming. But current computer and peripheral systems have increased the capabilities and flexibility
of robot technology, and some automation experts predict robots soon could be critical to drug manufacturers' efforts to reduce
costs, ensure consistent product quality, and increase efficiency.
A robot is an automated system that incorporates a sensor, an intelligent decision-making algorithm, and an actuator, according
to David Barrett, associate professor of mechanical engineering at Olin College in Needham, Massachusetts. Various types of
robots have emerged, including selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) robots, articulated-arm robots, and Delta robots
that are useful in pick-and-place applications (see Figures 1 and 2).
Figure 1: Pick-and-place robotics template for various configurations.(
Robots fall into two main categories, according to Ève Coste-Manière, independent research scientist and founder of Ève Coste-Manière
Consulting. Arm robots mimic the structure of the human arm and are good for pick-and-place functions. Parallel robots comprise
a platform mounted on "legs." These systems provide more precision (e.g., for insertion) than arm robots.
Figure 2: A high-speed robot (ABB IRB 360 FlexPicker) picks and places vaccine droppers.(
Generally a robot has at least four axes of motion. "Anything less than that is not really considered a robot or programmable
mechanism," says Rick Tallian, a packaging expert at the robotics division of ABB. A robot that provides four to six axes
of motion provides the flexibility of movement usually required in a packaging environment, for example.
A pharmaceutical manufacturer must pay particular attention to the robot's end effecter (e.g., its gripper), the part that
will come into contact with the product. A company also must consider its sterility requirements and whether the robot will
manipulate fragile containers. Engineering help is usually required to design a robot, particularly if it will be installed
into a scaled-up process. ABB, for example, employs system integrators who can analyze a specific manufacturing application
and develop a custom system around that application. In some cases, the system will be similar to another application so that
the engineering content has been worked out, and the system costs less than a custom system.
Many tests associated with research, discovery, and development entail repetitive tasks such as moving fluids between wells
in a plate. Pharmaceutical laboratories now use robots to perform these tests because they are easy to automate using traditional
pick-and-place machines. "Robots provide a high degree of consistency and accuracy executing the test protocols, while at
the same time allowing the researcher to focus on higher-value tasks," says Walt Langosch, director of sales and marketing
at ESS Technologies.
Equipment vendors have begun providing the industry with laboratory instruments that incorporate robots. For example, SciGene
makes a laboratory bench that includes a robot that prepares DNA samples. The laboratory technician does not need engineering
skills; he or she can use the robot by following simple instructions, says Brian Carlisle, president and CEO of Precise Automation.
Another example is Varian's auto-sampler, which includes a robot that picks up test tubes and loads them into a nuclear magnetic
resonance imaging magnet (see Figure 2). The emergence of vendors such as Varian and SciGene has allowed the pharmaceutical
industry to use robots more and more, says Carlisle.
Robots' success in pharmaceutical laboratories has encouraged companies to incorporate the machines into closely related production
operations such as pilot and small-batch manufacturing lines. Other companies have made robots a part of their distribution