Advancing Small-Molecule Synthesis - Pharmaceutical Technology

Latest Issue
PharmTech

Latest Issue
PharmTech Europe

Advancing Small-Molecule Synthesis
Chemocatalytic and biocatalytic routes play an important role in improving the manufacture of intermediates and active pharmaceutical ingredients.


Pharmaceutical Technology
Volume 35, Issue 4, pp. 54-58


IMAGE: MIRIAM MASLO/SPL, GETTY IMAGES
Catalysis plays a crucial role in small-molecule synthesis, whether it is in making an intermediate or the final active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The effective development and application of a catalyst system can improve reaction conditions, yield, and optical purity as well as produce more efficient chemical transformations. As recent developments show, chemocatalysis and biocatalysis continue to be an active area of academic research and business investments.

Advances from academia


Patricia Van Arnum
Oxidative enamine catalysis . Researchers at the East China University of Science and Technology, the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, and the University of New Mexico recently reported on a new chemical transformation, oxidative enamine catalysis, a potentially valuable approach in synthesizing chiral intermediates. The researchers noted that although iminium catalysis, which involves the transformation of iminium ions to enamines, has been extensively studied, the reverse process, converting enamines to iminium species, has not been well examined. In their work, the researchers described oxidative enamine catalysis, or the direct oxidation of an enamine, to produce an iminium species. The researchers showed that the use of o-iodoxybenzoic acid as an oxidant in the presence of a secondary amine catalyst is an effective system for converting enamines to iminium ions. The work was carried out for the direct asymmetric -functionalization of simple aldehydes. The research was used in other enantioselective cascade transformations, including triple and quadruple cascades, for a one-pot synthesis of chiral building blocks and structural frameworks that begin with aldehydes (1, 2).

Light-driven molecular motors in asymmetric reactions . Researchers at the University of Groningen in The Netherlands recently reported on a light-driven molecular motor with a switchable catalytic function in catalytic asymmetric reactions. Specifically, the researchers reported on a light-driven molecular motor with integrated catalytic functions in which the stepwise change in the configuration during a 360 unidirectional rotary cycle dictated the catalyst performance with respect to activity and absolute stereocontrol. During one full rotary cycle, catalysts were formed that produced either racemic (R, S) or preferentially the R or the S enantiomer of the chiral product of a conjugate addition reaction. The researchers noted that in situ switching of the chiral preference of a catalytic system had been difficult to achieve. The catalytic system in their work showed that different molecular tasks can be performed in a sequential manner and the sequence was controlled by the directionality of the rotary cycle (3, 4).


ADVERTISEMENT

blog comments powered by Disqus
LCGC E-mail Newsletters

Subscribe: Click to learn more about the newsletter
| Weekly
| Monthly
|Monthly
| Weekly

Survey
FDASIA was signed into law two years ago. Where has the most progress been made in implementation?
Reducing drug shortages
Breakthrough designations
Protecting the supply chain
Expedited reviews of drug submissions
More stakeholder involvement
Reducing drug shortages
70%
Breakthrough designations
4%
Protecting the supply chain
17%
Expedited reviews of drug submissions
2%
More stakeholder involvement
7%
View Results
Eric Langerr Outsourcing Outlook Eric LangerRelationship-building at Top of Mind for Clients
Cynthia Challener, PhD Ingredients Insider Cynthia ChallenerRisk Reduction Top Driver for Biopharmaceutical Raw Material Development
Jill Wechsler Regulatory Watch Jill Wechsler Changes and Challenges for Generic Drugs
Faiz Kermaini Industry Insider Faiz KermainiNo Signs of a Slowdown in Mergers
CMOs and the Track-and-Trace Race: Are You Engaged Yet?
Ebola Outbreak Raises Ethical Issues
Better Comms Means a Fitter Future for Pharma, Part 2: Realizing the Benefits of Unified Communications
Better Comms Means a Fitter Future for Pharma, Part 1: Challenges and Changes
Sandoz Wins Biosimilar Filing Race
Source: Pharmaceutical Technology,
Click here