As expected, last year's wave of megamergers among global pharmaceutical companies has unleashed a follow-on wave of impending
facility closings. Pfizer (New York) announced its intention to shut manufacturing operations at eight sites and close six
research and development (R&D) facilities following its merger with Wyeth (Madison, NJ). Merck & Co. (Whitehouse, NJ) plans
to close eight manufacturing sites and eight R&D sites in the wake of its acquisition of Schering-Plough (Kenilworth, NJ).
Roche (Basel, Switzerland), which acquired full ownership of Genentech (South San Francisco, CA) in 2009, recently announced
a strategic review of its operations that is likely to lead to closures.
Past waves of pharmaceutical plant consolidation helped spawn the birth of the contract research and manufacturing (CRO and
CMO) industry. For instance, most of Patheon's (Research Triangle Park, NC) current manufacturing network was assembled from
divested facilities, and major European CMOs such as Famar (Athens, Greece), Recipharm (Jordbro, Sweden), and Fareva (Paris)
are made up mostly of facilities once owned by global bio/pharmaceutical companies.
CMOs often have been able to acquire these facilities for only a token investment and have received contracts to manufacture
legacy products that have guaranteed them an initial revenue stream. However, it has been the sellers that have been the big
beneficiaries of the sales to CMOs. The sellers have saved millions of dollars/euros in severance payments, taxes, and environmental
remediation costs that they would have faced if they had closed the facilities and terminated the employees.
Facility sales are now going to be more difficult. The contract development and manufacturing market is improving, but the
new product pipeline is not as robust as it was in the middle of the last decade and competition among CMOs for the available
opportunities is intense. Established CMOs don't need or want additional capacity for the most part. New market entrants that
lack name recognition and a track record will have an especially difficult time gaining significant new business.
Also, financing for deals to acquire legacy manufacturing facilities is difficult to obtain because banks in North America
and Europe have tightened lending standards, and private equity investors have become more selective. In the best of circumstances,
it can take five or more years for a new CMO to build a decent portfolio of contracts from nonlegacy clients, and there are
few investors willing to take the chance that the effort will be successful.
The difficulties facing CMOs trying to make a success of a manufacturing site once owned by a global bio/pharmaceutical company
were highlighted recently when it was announced that Merck is buying back its active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) manufacturing
site in Riverside, Pennsylvania, from Cherokee Pharmaceuticals (Riverside, PA). Cherokee, a subsidiary of the outsourcing-services
provider PRWT (Philadelphia), acquired the facility from Merck at the end of 2007.
PRWT acquired the Cherokee operation for total consideration of $22.2 million, most of which was in the form of a promissory
note to Merck. In addition to the assets on the site, PRWT received a five-year supply agreement from Merck, which it claimed
would generate $100–200 million in annual revenues annually from producing antibiotics and chemical APIs and intermediates.
Based on a regulatory filing made by PRWT in 2008, Cherokee generated revenues of $84 million in its first year, of which
almost 90% came from Merck. However, overall facility utilization was low: less than 25% for the two pharmaceutical API synthesis
plants on the site and almost zero for the fermentation facility. A third plant manufacturing a crop-protection ingredient
had high utilization, however.
Aside from the Merck legacy business, the only other contract announced by Cherokee over the three years in which it owned
the facility was with DuPont (Wilmington, DE) for a crop-protection product. The company tried to make fuller use of its assets
by entering the chemical distribution business and announced a contract with Sigma Aldrich (St. Louis) to distribute specialty
chemical products. It's not clear whether this arrangement ever got off the ground.