Are Cleanroom Regulations Realistic? - Pharmaceutical Technology

Latest Issue
PharmTech

Latest Issue
PharmTech Europe

Are Cleanroom Regulations Realistic?


Pharmaceutical Technology Europe
Volume 22, Issue 12

This article is part of a special feature on cleanrooms that was published in the December issue of PTE Digital, available at http://www.pharmtech.com/ptedigital1210.


Jim Agalloco
The current expectations for cleanroom operations are those found in the FDA's 2004 Guideline on Sterile Drug Products Manufactured by Aseptic Processing and EMA's Annex 1: Sterile Medicinal Products. These documents are reasonably well harmonised with each other with respect to environmental monitoring expectations, media fill requirements and other areas, but they differ with respect to classification of the core aseptic processing environments, where the EMA employs Grades A and B, and the FDA adheres to the more general ISO classification scheme. USP is about to formalise a new chapter <1116> Microbial Evaluation of Clean Rooms and Other Controlled Environments that differs markedly in approach by eliminating numerical limits and suggesting incidence rates. USP cites analytical variability and limit of detection with respect to numerical quantification, especially in the cleanest environments as a major part of the reason for changing their approach.

Before validating a new cleanroom facility, I think it best to first consider the functionality of the facility and then define the desired capabilities that it is intended to satisfy. It is essential to understand:

  • the types of products and the expected volumes
  • the processes necessary for their manufacture
  • the equipment to be utilised in those processes, with special attention to the extent of automation and operator involvement
  • the materials and components necessary for the manufacturing processes.

With this defined, one can progress through the design exercise in an orderly manner.

Environmental monitoring over-emphasised

With respect to environmental monitoring, the expectations of both the FDA and the EMA do not consider the realities of aseptic processing and as a consequence, they overemphasise environmental monitoring to the point where they may actually be causing more problems than they are endeavouring to prevent. There are several aspects that the regulators seem to ignore:

  • Aseptic processing is not 'sterile' processing; those terms don't mean the same thing. The environments have never been, nor do they need to be 'sterile'. We don't require a 'sterile' environment to make a 'sterile' product.
  • Methods to precisely measure the microbial level in the air or on a surface do not exist. This is particularly true in the cleanest environments.
  • You cannot sample your way to 'sterility' in a processing environment. Even the most aggressive sampling schemes fall way short and increase risk more than any insight gained.
  • Sampling is an intervention and subject to adventitious contamination.
  • There have always been (and always will be) viable but nonculturable species, we cannot detect everything, but then again we shouldn't have to.

Expectations for perfection in performance may seem reasonable considering the label claim, but is quite unrealistic and unprovable from a scientific perspective. Unfortunately, these scientifically unrealistic expectations result in impractical acceptance criteria and the arbitrary and capricious rejection of product. The cost of monitoring, investigations and identification efforts is borne by the end user, and in many instances fails to bring any real benefit in reduction of product risk.

Can sterility ever be completely assured?

Sterility can never be guaranteed, and this represents a major technical disconnect between current regulatory policy and scientific reality. The sterility test as we know it today dates to the 1930s when processes were markedly less capable. In today's aseptic processing, its utility is highly questionable. The sampling limitations are well documented and, unfortunately, unfixable. Until such time as we have a universally accepted nondestructive sterility test for products, there is simply no means to assure sterility.

The media fill test is also, as many scientists and engineers have noted for years, merely a snapshot in time and not a method by which an aseptic process can be truly validated. It is important to remind ourselves that we can neither test nor monitor sterility (an attribute that can't be analytically measured) into our aseptically produced products.

My recent paper with Jim Akers entitled "The Myth Called Sterility" reviews this in some detail. It outlines what we called 'Sterility by Design', which is a group of interrelated design concepts that can at least assure 'safety' if not 'sterility'.1 If we were honest with ourselves, that is really all we have ever needed to have with respect to parenteral products.


ADVERTISEMENT

blog comments powered by Disqus
LCGC E-mail Newsletters

Subscribe: Click to learn more about the newsletter
| Weekly
| Monthly
|Monthly
| Weekly

Survey
FDASIA was signed into law two years ago. Where has the most progress been made in implementation?
Reducing drug shortages
Breakthrough designations
Protecting the supply chain
Expedited reviews of drug submissions
More stakeholder involvement
Reducing drug shortages
70%
Breakthrough designations
4%
Protecting the supply chain
17%
Expedited reviews of drug submissions
2%
More stakeholder involvement
7%
View Results
Eric Langerr Outsourcing Outlook Eric LangerTargeting Different Off-Shore Destinations
Cynthia Challener, PhD Ingredients Insider Cynthia ChallenerAsymmetric Synthesis Continues to Advance
Jill Wechsler Regulatory Watch Jill Wechsler Data Integrity Key to GMP Compliance
Sean Milmo European Regulatory WatchSean MilmoExtending the Scope of Pharmacovigilance Comes at a Price
From Generics to Supergenerics
CMOs and the Track-and-Trace Race: Are You Engaged Yet?
Ebola Outbreak Raises Ethical Issues
Better Comms Means a Fitter Future for Pharma, Part 2: Realizing the Benefits of Unified Communications
Better Comms Means a Fitter Future for Pharma, Part 1: Challenges and Changes
Source: Pharmaceutical Technology Europe,
Click here