Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy - Pharmaceutical Technology

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Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy
A Novel Nondestructive Approach for Measuring Moisture Activity in Pharmaceutical Samples

Pharmaceutical Technology

The authors thank Jim Veale and Bobby Anderson of Lighthouse Instruments, Inc., as well as the vendors of the other two instruments whose cooperation has greatly facilitated the work described in this report. The authors also thank Joshua Stull, Ngocyen Le, Elijah Tan, John Shust, Christopher Gilman, Brad Holstine, Brandon McWilliams, Jimmy George, Sean Hutchinson, and William Lewis for their help in the collection and compilation of these data.


The information described in this report does not constitute endorsement of any particular instrument type or supplier by Merck & Co., Inc.

Rajiv Mahajan,* is a research fellow
Allen C. Templeton is research fellow, Robert A. Reed is a senior director, and Rey T. Chern is a senior research fellow, all at Pharmaceutical Research & Development, Merck Research Laboratories, Merck & Co., Inc., West Point, PA 19486.

*To whom all correspondence should be addressed.

Submitted: Dec. 16, 2004. Accepted: Feb. 9, 2005.


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8. A.C. Templeton et al., "Rapid Headspace Oxygen Analysis for Pharmaceutical Packaging Applications," Pharm. Technol. 26 (7), 41–61 (2002).

9. A.C. Templeton et al., "Determination of the Moisture Content of Bromobutyl Rubber Stoppers as a Function of Processing: Implications Toward the Stability of Lyophilized Products," PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 57 (2), 75–87 (2003).

10. J.N. Demas, B.A. DeGraff, and P.B. Coleman, "Oxygen Sensors based on Luminescence Quenching," Anal. Chem. 71 (23), 793–801 (1999).


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