The Use of Model Organisms in Sterilizing Filtration - Pharmaceutical Technology

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The Use of Model Organisms in Sterilizing Filtration

Pharmaceutical Technology

In the mid-1960s, Frances Bowman of FDA identified an organism that would penetrate the 0.45-μm-rated membranes that typically were used for sterilizing filtration at that time (8). The organism, currently known as B. diminuta, American Type Culture Collection 19146, had the ability to distinguish between 0.22- and 0.45-μm-rated membranes (it readily penetrated the latter) and, at concentrations higher than about 1 107 cfu/cm2, it penetrated 0.22-μm-rated membranes, demonstrating that because penetration was concentration-dependent, mechanisms other than sieve retention were active. Although not the smallest organism known (smaller organisms had been known for decades), B. diminuta generally was considered small enough to represent whatever smaller organisms were likely to be present in pharmaceutical preparations. ASTM standard F 838, "Standard Test Method for Determining Bacterial Retention of Membrane Filters Utilized for Liquid Filtration," is based on the use of B. diminuta as the challenge organism. The standard was originally approved in 1983 and was designed to determine the bacterial retention characteristics of membrane filters for liquid filtration.

Bioburden organisms as models

Since then, however, some 25 cases have been noted wherein the 0.2/0.22-μm-rated membranes qualified by withstanding the requisite B. diminuta challenge did not yield sterile effluent (9, 10). Obviously, B. diminuta does not serve as a universal model for all organisms. This finding has led some to advocate that the choice of the model organism whereby a filter will be qualified for use as a sterilizing filter should be an organism native to the drug preparation. In this view, B. diminuta suffers from the demerit of not being part of the drug preparation's bioburden. Be that as it may, selecting a component of the bioburden as the model organism is not enough. The test organism must be amenable to identification and cultivation. Its life stages must allow amply for its management in the necessary test manipulations. Above all, its susceptibility to size diminution by contact with a given drug preparation will have to be investigated, and the kinetics and direction of the morphological changes, if any, will require elucidation.

Insufficiency of the model organism

Summary points
As previously stated, it had been believed that a sterilizing filter could be defined by way of its pore-size designation as identified by integrity testing. Developments in filtration practices showed this belief to be too simplistic. What had once seemed simple now is recognized as being quite complex. It was discovered that the conclusions based on pore-size ratings were subject to modification by the physicochemical specificity of the organism-suspending fluid, the individuality of the organism type in its size-changing response to the fluid, the possible change in pore size induced by the fluid, and the adsorptive qualities of the filter resulting from its particular polymeric composition, all influenced by the filtration conditions in their numerous varieties, but especially by the transmembrane pressure (11, 12).

A filter may not sterilize the same preparation under different filtration conditions, especially under dissimilar differential pressures (13). A given membrane may or may not retain a particular organism type suspended in a different drug vehicle (8). The organism type need not remain constant in size, but may alter in response to its suspending fluid (14–16). The effect of the vehicle upon the polymeric membrane may cause a change in its pore size (17).

The certainty of obtaining sterile effluent requires far more than the identification of a sterilizing filter by a pore-size rating. The variety of influences governing the outcome of an intended sterilizing filtration necessitates a careful validation of the process, including the filter. The very drug preparation of interest, the exact membrane type, the precise filtration conditions, and the prefiltration bioburden, including specific organism type(s) and number, should be used in the necessary validation.


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