Forensically invisible markers or taggants that are detectable only by proprietary reading devices can provide multiple levels
of security, including basic pass–fail authentication, unique particle-signature identification for item-level recognition
and tracking, and additional proprietary levels of security. Built-in safeguards prevent reverse engineering. Taggants can
be mixed into almost any packaging material including paper pulp, ink, varnish, laser toner, molten metals, and resin or applied
as a coating. Taggants can be detected at levels as low as two parts per million and can add as little as $0.002 to the cost
of a package ("Kodak Traceless System," Kodak Security, Brand Authentication & ID Systems, Burnaby, BC, Canada,
http://www.kodak.com/go/traceless; taggant technology, InkSure Technologies, Fort Lauderdale, FL,
http://www.inksure.com/; and "Visi-Tag" brand protection, Rexam Closures & Containers, Evansville, IN,
High-frequency phase-jitter modulation technology developed by Magellan Technology makes it possible for each RFID-tagged
item in this tote to be read at line speeds using tags from UPM Raflatac and a tunnel reader from Balogh U.S.A.
Synthesized DNA code fragments can serve as biomolecular markers. Unique markers are created for each customer and are divided
into two parts. When the parts are combined, a hybridization reaction assembles the finished, detectable DNA code segment.
Field confirmation is performed with a handheld reader that measures a luminescent signal from the DNA ("Bio-Molecular Marker,"
Another layered approach combines overt, covert, and semicovert technologies such as holographic labeling with a destructive
adhesive, 14-point security board with fluorescent fibers, infrared inks in predetermined places on the package, dual-wavelength
UV spot varnish, nano-bar code technology or X-ray fluorescing frequency particles in a coating, microtaggants in the glue,
radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, and proprietary markers ("Dosepak BP," Centuria Brand & Supply Chain Security,
MeadWestvaco Healthcare Packaging, Stamford, CT,
Multisorb's Moisture Management Analysis services help determine the type and quantity of sorbent needed to manage moisture
for specific product–package combinations.
Screened keys laid on top of printed label graphics reveal otherwise invisible watermarks. Multiple images such as a company
name, logo, and numeric codes can be hidden in the same area to provide a different authentication device for various levels
of the supply chain ("AuthentiKey," Tursso Companies, Inc., St. Paul, MN,
A print-registered, tear-initiation point on child-resistant pouches from Amcor Flexibles can be positioned anywhere on the