The Relationship among Pore-Size Ratings, Bubble Points, and Porosity - Pharmaceutical Technology

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The Relationship among Pore-Size Ratings, Bubble Points, and Porosity

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1. T.H. Meltzer and M.W. Jornitz, Pharmaceutical Filtration: The Management of Organism Removal (DHI/PDA Publishers, Bethesda, MD, 2006).

2. US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drugs and Biologics and Office of Regulatory Affairs, Guidance for Industry, Sterile Drug Products Produced by Aseptic Processing: CGMP (FDA, Rockville, MD, 1987 and 2003).

3. F.W. Bowman, M.P. Calhoun, and M. White, "Microbiological Methods for Quality Control of Membrane Filters," J. Pharm. Sci. 56 (2), 222–225 (1967).

4. R.E. Kesting, "Synthetic Polymeric Membranes: A Structural Perspective," in Phase Inversion Membranes (Wiley-Interscience, New York, NY, 3d ed., 1985).

5. P.R. Johnston, Fluid Sterilization by Filtration (Interpharm/CDC, Boca Raton, FL, 2003), Chapters 1, 3, and 9.

6. H.W. Piekaar and L.A. Clarenburg, "Aerosol Filters: Pore Size Distribution in Fibrous Filters," Chem. Eng. Sci. 22, 1399–1408 (1967).

7. R.E. Williams and T.H. Meltzer, "Membrane Structure: The Bubble Point and Particle Retention: A New Theory," Pharm. Technol. 7 (5), 36–42 (1983).

8. F.J. Almgren and J.E. Taylor, "Geometry of Soap Films and Soap Bubbles," Sci. Amer. 235 (l), 82–93 (1976).

9. American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM Standard F-316: Pore-Size Characteristics of Membrane Filters for Use with Aerospace Fluids (ASTM, West Conshohoken, PA, 1980).

10. T.H. Meltzer, "Chapter 3: Filter Porosity Characteristics," in Filtration in the Pharmaceutical Industry (Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, 1987), pp. 100–122.

11. E. Honold and E.L. Skau, "Application of Mercury-Intrusion Method for Determination of Pore-Size Distribution in Membrane Filters," Science 120, 805–806 (1954).

12. H.M. Rootare and J. Spencer, "A Computer Program for Pore Volume and Pore-Area Distribution Calculations from Mercury Porosimetry Data on Particulate and Porous Materials," Powder Technol . 6, 17–23 (1972).

13. R.E. Williams, Bubble Point Testing and Its Importance to the End User (Filtration Society, Monterey, CA, 1984).

14. J.K. Lee et al., "Pore Size Characteristics of Microporous Membrane Filters by Airflow Porosimetry and Particulate Loading Studies," Swiss Contam. Control 3, 160–164 (1990).

15. J.G. Zahka, "Pore Size Characteistics of Microporous Membranes and Filters by Airflow Porosimetry and Particulate Loading Studies," Swiss Contam. Control 3, 160–164 (1990).

16. B.G. Rogers and H.W. Rossmore, "Determination of Membrane Filter Porosity by Microbiological Methods," Devel. Indus. Microbiol. 2, 453–459 (1970).

17. K.H. Wallhäusser, "Is the Removal of Microorganisms by Filtration Really a Sterilization Method?" J. Paren. Drug Assoc. 33 (3), 156–171 (1979).

18. D.B. Pall, E.A. Kirnbauer, and B.T. Allen, "Particulate Retention by Bacteria Retentive Membrane Filters," Colloids and Surfaces 1, 25–35 (1980).


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