Solubility, Polymorphism, Crystallinity, Crystal Habit, and Drying Scheme of (R, S)-(±)-Sodium Ibuprofen Dihydrate - Pharmaceutical Technology

Latest Issue

Latest Issue
PharmTech Europe

Solubility, Polymorphism, Crystallinity, Crystal Habit, and Drying Scheme of (R, S)-(±)-Sodium Ibuprofen Dihydrate
The racemic compound (R, S)-(±)-ibuprofen is a popular and well understood active pharmaceutical ingredient, but it has several disadvantageous formulation properties such as poor solubility, low melting point, and potential esterification with excipients containing an hydroxyl group. The authors investigate the use of an (R, S)-(±)-ibuprofen salt to evaluate these problems using various analytical methods to determine the polymorphism, crystallinity, and drying scheme.

Pharmaceutical Technology

3. N. Rasenack and B. W. Müller. "Properties of Ibuprofen Crystallized under Various Conditions: A Comparative Study," Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 28 (9), 1077–1089 (2002).

4. P. D. Martino et al., "Influence of Crystal Habit on the Compression and the Densification Mechanism of Ibuprofen," J. Crys. Growth 243 (2), 345–355 (2002).

5. H. Cano, N. Gabas, and J. P. Canselier, "Experimental Study on the Ibuprofen Crystal Growth Morphoplogy in Solution," J. Cryst. Growth 224 (3-4), 335–341 (2001).

6. L. C. Garzón and F. Martínez, "Temperature Dependence of Solubility for Ibuprofen in Some Organic and Aqueous Solvents," J. Solution Chem. 33 (11), 1379–1395 (2004).

7. A.J. Romero, L. Savastano, and C.T. Rhodes. "Monitoring Crystal Modifications in Systems Containing Ibuprofen," Int. J. Pharm. 99 (2–3), 125–134 (1993).

8. A.J. Romeo and C. T. Rhodes, "Approaches to Stereospecific Preformulation of Ibuprofen," Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 33 (5), 777–792 (1991).

9. K. Skankland et al., "Structure Solution of Ibuprofen from Powder Diffraction Data by the Application of a Generic Algorithm Combined with Prior Conformational Analysis," Int. J. Pharm. 165 (1), 117–126 (1998).

10. G.L. Perlovich et al., "Thermodynamics of Sublimation, Crystal Lattice Energies, and Crystal Structures of Racemates and Enantiomers: (+)- and (±)-Ibuprofen," J. Pharm. Sci. 93 (3), 654–666 (2004).

11. A.H. Nada, S.M. Al-Saidan, and B.W. Mueller. "Improving the Physical and Chemical Properties of Ibuprofen," Pharm. Technol. 29 (11): 90–101 (2005).

12. Y. Zhang and D.J.W. Grant. "Similarity in Structures of Racemic and Enantiomeric Ibuprofen Sodium Dihydrates," Acta Cryst. C61 (9), m435–m438 (2005).

13. T. Lee, C. S. Kuo, and Y.H. Chen, "Solubility, Polymorphism, Crystallinity, and Crystal Habit of Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen," Pharm. Technol. 30 (10), 72–92 (2006).

14. L. Yu, S.M. Reutzel, and GA. Stephenson, "Physical Characterization of Polymorphic Drugs: An Integrated Characterization Strategy," Pharm. Sci. Tech. Today 1 (3), 118–127 (1998).

15. J. Burke, "Solubility Parameters: Theory and Application," as in Book and Paper Group Annual (The American Institute for Conservation, Vol. 3, 1984),, accessed Apr. 9, 2007.

16. I. Katzhendler, K. Mäder, and M. Friedman, "Structure and Hydration Properties of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Matrices Containing Naproxen and Naproxen Sodium," Int. J. Pharm. 200 (2), 161–179 (2000).


blog comments powered by Disqus
LCGC E-mail Newsletters

Subscribe: Click to learn more about the newsletter
| Weekly
| Monthly
| Weekly

FDASIA was signed into law two years ago. Where has the most progress been made in implementation?
Reducing drug shortages
Breakthrough designations
Protecting the supply chain
Expedited reviews of drug submissions
More stakeholder involvement
Reducing drug shortages
Breakthrough designations
Protecting the supply chain
Expedited reviews of drug submissions
More stakeholder involvement
View Results
Eric Langerr Outsourcing Outlook Eric LangerTargeting Different Off-Shore Destinations
Cynthia Challener, PhD Ingredients Insider Cynthia ChallenerAsymmetric Synthesis Continues to Advance
Jill Wechsler Regulatory Watch Jill Wechsler Data Integrity Key to GMP Compliance
Sean Milmo European Regulatory WatchSean MilmoExtending the Scope of Pharmacovigilance Comes at a Price
From Generics to Supergenerics
CMOs and the Track-and-Trace Race: Are You Engaged Yet?
Ebola Outbreak Raises Ethical Issues
Better Comms Means a Fitter Future for Pharma, Part 2: Realizing the Benefits of Unified Communications
Better Comms Means a Fitter Future for Pharma, Part 1: Challenges and Changes
Source: Pharmaceutical Technology,
Click here