Question: Can you explain the role of lean-manufacturing principles in your strategy and provide examples of such projects
implemented at your facilities?
Ricciardi: Agile and lean operations are a core component of Pfizer Global Manufacturing's transformational strategies to ensure supply and meet the
needs of our customers. This is fully aligned with other transformational strategies including sourcing, the transformation
of our network, the adoption of new technologies, and the standardization of global business processes. Lean-operations principles
are being built upon our strong base of continuous improvement and improving process capabilities through "Right First Time,"
which is focused on both process effectiveness and efficiency through the use of Six Sigma and other statistical/qualitative
tools. They are being used within our facilities, across global supply chains, and within functional groups to optimize our
operations' productivity and to focus employees' energy on value-adding activities. These principles are delivering lead-time
and inventory reductions and are resulting in significant cost improvements.
The lean activities have delivered substantial results that have improved our economics and performance in launching products
and in managing product complexity. In specific efforts, we have achieved 5–20% cost reductions, 20–40% inventory and lead-time
reductions, and avoidance of capital expenditures. Of equal importance, our lean manufacturing efforts have increased our
colleagues' focus on our customers' needs and are increasing our organizational ability to respond to our changing environment.
Question: Can you outline your programs for continuous improvement and operational excellence in your sourcing activities?
Ricciardi: We have applied the same continuous-improvement approach to the sourcing of our raw materials and packaging supplies. We
have completed various Six-Sigma projects with key vendors to address both quality improvements and efficiency opportunities.
Many vendors have their own Six-Sigma programs, but where this is not the case, we have, on occasion, provided training, using
our own employees. To evaluate the impact of changing a material supplier, we have a technical group that specializes in developing
and applying sophisticated analytical techniques to allow us to compare the physical and chemical properties of the new material
with our current supply. This gives us a good prediction of how it will perform in our operation.
Question: In terms of your sourcing activities, how has the role of central procurement increased and how is that function
incorporated into your manufacturing strategy?
Ricciardi: The role of central procurement has increased, specifically in the number of global category strategy managers engaged in
sourcing APIs. As a larger percentage of APIs is outsourced, a broadening of the supply base and increased understanding
of supplier capabilities are required. This transition has brought the need to increase resources and focus in the countries
of China and India, which we have done by establishing a center of excellence team based in Singapore to work in those markets.
This team works in concert with our strategy to optimize our internal plant network on the forefront of identifying opportunities
and in planning transitional inventory coverage as external suppliers are qualified.
Question: What special considerations are given when working with suppliers in emerging markets such as India and China?
Ricciardi: There are several considerations in order to qualify a supplier for the intended purpose; however, once a supplier has been
qualified and a working relationship is established, then many ongoing issues need to be addressed. These topics range from
quality of product and services to practices, safety, regulatory compliance, reports, and metrics. These ongoing interfaces
will be jointly agreed to in the beginning and will formulate the respective expectations and interface.
Special considerations when working with suppliers in emerging markets are numerous, obviously the first and foremost is product
integrity and safety. Any potential supplier is evaluated on its ability to produce material in a manner that is fully compliant
in all regulatory procedures. Other considerations when evaluating suppliers include the following: their ability to sustain
supply in the long run; assurance of capacity and our ability to access additional capacity if needed; use of technology;
research and development assets; continual improvement efforts; and cost competitiveness.
Question: What are the most critical issues in maintaining supply-chain integrity?
Ricciardi: Industry and regulatory agencies around the world share responsibility for assuring the security of the pharmaceutical supply
chain. The importance of a full and complete evaluation of a potential supplier or contract manufacturer by the pharmaceutical
firm cannot be overemphasized. A thorough review of the potential partners' quality systems, including verification that they
have control over their own supply chain, must be completed to determine whether they are willing and able to meet the required
standards. If they are not, access to the supply chain should be denied until they have demonstrated that the required standards
are being applied. Once a supplier is approved for use, ongoing quality oversight is critical to ensure that the standards
continue to be met. We have done that and in fact, have not approved suppliers that have not demonstrated sufficient progress.
In developed countries, suppliers operate within sophisticated regulatory environments and typically adhere to internationally
recognized standards. They generally have effective quality systems that provide a high degree of confidence in the supply
chain. Companies in emerging markets operate in a developing regulatory environment and may have less effective quality systems.
A pharmaceutical firm may need to work with these suppliers to upgrade their systems and standards. In addition, regulatory
agencies in developed countries share in the responsibility to educate manufacturers and health authorities in emerging countries.
Natale S. Ricciardi is president of Pfizer Global Manufacturing and senior vice-president of Pfizer.