The Rotation of Disinfectants Principle: True or False? - Pharmaceutical Technology

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PharmTech

Latest Issue
PharmTech Europe

The Rotation of Disinfectants Principle: True or False?
The author defines sanitizers, disinfectants, and antibiotics, and examines the question of whether the rotation of disinfectants is scientifically warranted.


Pharmaceutical Technology
Volume 33, Issue 2, pp. 58-71

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36. N. Ismaeel et al., "Resistance of Providencia stuartii to Chlorhexidine: A Consideration of the Role of the Inner Membrane," J. Appl. Bacteriol. 60, 361–367 (1986).

37. L. Thomas et al., "Development of Resistance to Chlorhexidine Diacetate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Effect of a 'Residual' Concentration," J. Hosp. Infect. 46 (4), 297–303 (2000).

38. J. Martone, O.C. Tablan, and W.R. Jarvis, "The Epidemiology of Nosocomial Epidemic Pseudomonas cepacia Infections," Eur. J. Epidemiol. 3 (3), 222–232 (1987).

39. R. Lannigan et al., "Decreased Susceptibility of Serratia marcescens to Chlorhexidine Related to the Inner Membrane," J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 15 (5), 559–565 (1985).

40. D.J. Stickler and B. Thomas, "Sensitivity of Providencia to Antiseptics and Disinfectants," J. Clin. Pathol. 29 (9), 815–823 (1976).

41. S.B. Luppens, T. Abee, and J. Oosterom, "Effect of Benzalkonium Chloride on Viability and Energy Metabolism in Exponential- and Stationary-Growth-Phase Cells of Listeria monocytogenes, " J. Food Prot. 64 (4), 476–482 (2001).

42. S.G. Geftic, H. Heymann, and F.W. Adair, "Fourteen-Year Survival of Pseudomonas cepacia in a Salts Solution Preserved with Benzalkonium Chloride," Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37 (3), 505–510 (1979).

43. K. Sekimizu et al., "Increase in Resistance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to ß-lactams Caused by Mutations Conferring Resistance to Benzalkonium Chloride, a Disinfectant Widely Used in Hospitals," Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43 (12), 3042–3043 (1999).

44. J.A. Joynson, B. Forbes, and R.J.W. Lambert, "Adaptive Resistance to Benzalkonium Chloride, Amikacin, and Tobramycin: The Effect on Susceptibility to Other Antimicrobials," J. Appl. Microbiol. 93 (1), 96–107 (2002).

45. H.P. Schweizer et al., "Cross-Resistance between Triclosan and Antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Mediated by Multidrug Efflux Pumps: Exposure of a Susceptible Mutant Strain to Triclosan Selects nfxB Mutants Overexpressing MexCD-Opr," Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45 (2), 428–432 (2001).


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