The Rotation of Disinfectants Principle: True or False? - Pharmaceutical Technology

Latest Issue

Latest Issue
PharmTech Europe

The Rotation of Disinfectants Principle: True or False?
The author defines sanitizers, disinfectants, and antibiotics, and examines the question of whether the rotation of disinfectants is scientifically warranted.

Pharmaceutical Technology
Volume 33, Issue 2, pp. 58-71

90. W.S. Dallas et al., "Cloning, Sequencing, and Enhanced Expression of the Dihydropteroate Synthase Gene of Escherichia coli MC4100," J. Bacteriol. 174, 5961–5970 (1992).

91. J.P. Maskell, A.M. Sefton, and L.M.C. Hall, "Mechanism of Sulfonamide Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, " Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41, 2121–2126 (1997).

92. T. Köhler et al., "Multidrug Efflux in Intrinsic Resistance to Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, " Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40 (10), 2288–2290 (1996).

93. S.G.B. Amyes et al., "The Type VII Dihydrofolate Reductase: A Novel Plasmid-Encoded Trimethoprim-Resistant Enzyme from Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated in Britain," J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 24, 111–119 (1989).

94. B.A. Wylie et al., "Identification of a Novel Plasmid-Encoded Dihydrofolate Reductase Mediating High Level Resistance to Trimethoprim," J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 22, 429–435 (1988).

95. R.L. Then, "Mechanisms of Resistance to Trimethoprim, the Sulfonamides, and Trimethoprim-Sulphamethoxazole," Rev. Infect. Dis. 4, 261–269 (1982).

96. W.A. Rutala et al., "APIC Guidelines for Selection and Use of Disinfectants," Am. J. Infect. Control. 24 (4 supplement), 313–342 (1996).

97. IFH Scientific Advisory Board, "Microbial Resistance and Biocides: IFH Consensus Statement on Microbial Resistance and Biocides," in International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene (IFH Scientific Advisory Board, Geneva, 2000), available at, accessed Jan. 18, 2009.

98. CDC, Infection Definitions, Reports, and Guidelines, CDC 1997,, accessed Jan. 18, 2009

99. E. Cadenas, "Biochemistry of Oxygen Toxicity," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 58, 79–110 (1989).

100. G. McDonnell, "Biocides: Modes of Action and Mechanisms of Resistance," in Disinfection and Decontamination Principles, Applications, and Related Issues, G. Manivannan, Ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2008), pp. 93–95.

101. W. Gottardi, "Iodine and Iodine Compounds," in Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, S.S. Block, Ed. (Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 4th ed., 1991), pp. 152–166.

102. A.F. Mendonca, T.L. Amoroso and S.J. Knabel, "Destruction of Gram-Negative Food-Borne Pathogens by High pH Involves Disruption of the Cytoplasmic Membrane," Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60 (11), 4009–4014 (1994).


blog comments powered by Disqus
LCGC E-mail Newsletters

Subscribe: Click to learn more about the newsletter
| Weekly
| Monthly
| Weekly

FDASIA was signed into law two years ago. Where has the most progress been made in implementation?
Reducing drug shortages
Breakthrough designations
Protecting the supply chain
Expedited reviews of drug submissions
More stakeholder involvement
Reducing drug shortages
Breakthrough designations
Protecting the supply chain
Expedited reviews of drug submissions
More stakeholder involvement
View Results
Eric Langerr Outsourcing Outlook Eric LangerTargeting Different Off-Shore Destinations
Cynthia Challener, PhD Ingredients Insider Cynthia ChallenerAsymmetric Synthesis Continues to Advance
Jill Wechsler Regulatory Watch Jill Wechsler Data Integrity Key to GMP Compliance
Sean Milmo European Regulatory WatchSean MilmoExtending the Scope of Pharmacovigilance Comes at a Price
New FDA Team to Spur Modern Drug Manufacturing
From Generics to Supergenerics
CMOs and the Track-and-Trace Race: Are You Engaged Yet?
Ebola Outbreak Raises Ethical Issues
Better Comms Means a Fitter Future for Pharma, Part 2: Realizing the Benefits of Unified Communications
Source: Pharmaceutical Technology,
Click here