Novel Approaches for Oral Insulin Delivery - Pharmaceutical Technology

Latest Issue
PharmTech

Latest Issue
PharmTech Europe

Novel Approaches for Oral Insulin Delivery
The authors review various oral drug delivery systems that have been explored to increase patient compliance for insulin.


Pharmaceutical Technology
Volume 33, Issue 7

Conclusion

Attempts have been made to achieve oral insulin delivery using various systems. It has been proved that the insulin is subjected to acid catalyzed degradation in stomach, luminal degradation in intestine, and intracellular degradation. Scientists have been able to protect the insulin delivery systems from acidic environment of the stomach and target it to the intestine. The maximum bioavailability of the insulin has been reported to be very low because of the poor absorption of insulin from the intestine. The magnitude of apparent permeability of insulin has been reported to be more in the jejunem and ileum than in other parts of the intestine. Researchers have tried to increase the absorption of insulin from the intestine using absorption enhancers such as aprotinin (protease inhibitor), tween, oligoarginine, sodium glycochol-ate, deoxycholic acid, and taurodeoxycholate.

Researchers have prepared microspheres, liposomes, mi-croemulsions, niosomes, nanocubicles, and so forth for the oral delivery of insulin. Pharmacodynamic studies of the insulin from the delivery systems have been successfully carried out in streptozotocin- or alloxan-induced diabetic mice or rats or other animals. The loading of insulin in microparticulate delivery system was the highest. Chitosan-coated microparticles protected insulin from the gastric environment of the body and released it in intestinal pH. Chitosan-coated liposomes have also been reported to have excellent hypoglycemic effects. Limitations to the delivery of insulin have not resulted in fruitful results to date and there is still a need to prepare newer delivery systems, which can produce dose-dependent and reproducible effects in addition to increased bioavailability.

S. Dhawan* is a senior manager of advanced drug delivery and research at Panacea Biotech and a faculty member, Rishi Kapil and Deepak Kapoor are senior research fellows all at UGC-CAS Pharmaceutical Science, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, INDIA,
. Sunny Chopra is a senior reesearch fellow in the department of pharmaceutical sciences at Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi, India. *To whom all correspondence should be addressed.

References

1. K.G and K.T. Giriraj, "Oral Insulin-Fact or Fiction," Resonance 38–43 (May 2003), http://www.ias.ac.in/resonance/May2003/May2003p38-46.html, accessed June 24, 2009.

2. I. Ahmed and B. Goldstein, "Diabetes Mellitus," Clin. Dermatol. 24 (4), 237–246 (2006).

3. M.I. Balabolkin and B.M. Gazetov, "Infections in Diabetes (review of the literature)," Khirurgiia 1, 147–154 (1984).

4. "American Diabetes Association Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus," Diabetes Care 20, 1183–1197 (1997).

5. M. Patricia and G.S. Eisinbarth, "Pathogenesis: Prediction and Trials for the Prevention of Insulin Dependent (Type 1) Diabetes Mellitus," Adv. Drug Del. Rev. 35, 143–156 (1999).

6. F.G. Banting, "Pancreatic Extracts," J. Lab. Clin. Med. 7, 464–472 (1922).

7. H.P. Rang, M.M. Dale, and J.M. Ritter, Pharmacology, S. Beasley, Ed. (Laurence Hunter, London, England, 1995), p. 855.

8. B.B. Yeap, "Primary Care Diabetes: What Options are There?" Aust Fam Physician. 30 (12), 1122–1128 (2001).

9. T. Ayabe, "Bilateral Lower Lobectomies for Pulmonary MucorMycosis," Kyobu Geka 57 (13), 1183–1190 (2004).

10. J. Belmin and P. Valensi, "Novel Drug Delivery Systems for Insulin: Clinical Potential for Use in the Elderly," Drugs Aging 20 (4), 303–312 (2003).

11. P.A. Hollander, "Evolution of a Pulmonary Insulin Delivery System (Exubera) for Patients with Diabetes," MedGenMed. 9 (1), 45. (2007).

12. J.S. Patton, J. Bukar, and S. Nagaranjan, "Inhaled Insulin," Adv. Drug Del. Rev. 35 (1–2), 235–247 (1999).

13. W.T. Cefalu, "Evolving Strategies for Insulin Delivery and Therapy," Drugs 64 (11), 1149–1161 (2004).

14. T. Haak, "New Developments in the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus," Exp. Clin. Endocronol Diabetes 107 (3), S108–113 (1999).

15. S. Heller, P. Kozlovski, and P. Kurtzhals, "Insulin's 85th Anniversary: An Enduring Medical Miracle," Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 3, 3 (2007).

16. M. Morishita et al., "A Novel Approach using Functional Peptides for Efficient Intestinal Absorption of Insulin," J. Control. Release 118 (2), 177–184, Epub 2006, (2007).

17. V. Agarwal and M.A. Khan, "Current Status of the Oral Delivery of Insulin," Pharm. Technol. 76–88 (2001).


ADVERTISEMENT

blog comments powered by Disqus
LCGC E-mail Newsletters

Subscribe: Click to learn more about the newsletter
| Weekly
| Monthly
|Monthly
| Weekly

Survey
What role should the US government play in the current Ebola outbreak?
Finance development of drugs to treat/prevent disease.
Oversee medical treatment of patients in the US.
Provide treatment for patients globally.
All of the above.
No government involvement in patient treatment or drug development.
Finance development of drugs to treat/prevent disease.
28%
Oversee medical treatment of patients in the US.
12%
Provide treatment for patients globally.
9%
All of the above.
45%
No government involvement in patient treatment or drug development.
7%
Jim Miller Outsourcing Outlook Jim MillerCMO Industry Thins Out
Cynthia Challener, PhD Ingredients Insider Cynthia ChallenerFluorination Remains Key Challenge in API Synthesis
Marilyn E. Morris Guest EditorialMarilyn E. MorrisBolstering Graduate Education and Research Programs
Jill Wechsler Regulatory Watch Jill Wechsler Biopharma Manufacturers Respond to Ebola Crisis
Sean Milmo European Regulatory WatchSean MilmoHarmonizing Marketing Approval of Generic Drugs in Europe
Seven Steps to Solving Tabletting and Tooling ProblemsStep 1: Clean
Legislators Urge Added Incentives for Ebola Drug Development
FDA Reorganization to Promote Drug Quality
FDA Readies Quality Metrics Measures
New FDA Team to Spur Modern Drug Manufacturing
Source: Pharmaceutical Technology,
Click here