Orally Disintegrating Tablets: The Effect of Recent FDA Guidance on ODT Technologies and Applications - Pharmaceutical Technology

Latest Issue

Latest Issue
PharmTech Europe

Orally Disintegrating Tablets: The Effect of Recent FDA Guidance on ODT Technologies and Applications
The authors describe the various available technologies used in orally disintegrating tablets.

Pharmaceutical Technology

Pediatric application of ODTs

Although ODTs in general offer improved convenience and are frequently preferred over conventional solid oral-dosage forms, ODTs may lead to significant improvements over current treatment options for specific patient groups, for instance, pediatric patients. The European Medicines Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) described orodispersible dosage forms as having "great promise for children" (4). The use of an ODT formulation of ondansetron has been found to be helpful in the treatment of children as young as 6 months of age suffering from gastroenteritis and dehydration (5).

To enable the potential benefits of ODT formulations to be fully realized, the additional requirements of this group also need to be considered, and the ease with which the different types of ODT can be adapted to meet these requirements will affect their overall application and commercial potential. Clearly, size and disintegration time are particularly important. A fast disintegration time will reduce any potential choking hazard and will also make it harder to spit out the dose. Similarly, the taste and texture of pediatric formulations are critical to facilitate compliance in children, particularly for chronic conditions where repeated administration may be an issue. Specific consideration needs to be given to the type and level of flavors and sweeteners used in pediatric formulations, especially where artificial ingredients are used. The choice and level of other excipients requires similar review for pediatric formulations, where there may be established limits for children or where there is a lack of excipient safety data for this population.

As solid-unit doses, ODTs generally offer improved dose accuracy, storage, and stability advantages over liquid preparations. However, for pediatric applications, ODTs also need to be able to accommodate a wider range of doses, particularly at the lower end. ODT technologies that can offer low-dose accuracy will be of particular benefit to this group. In addition, clinical studies in pediatrics are required to confirm acceptable safety and efficacy in the target patient group, but the initial selection of an ODT for pediatric indications and compliance with the FDA ODT recommendations would help to eliminate the risk of unsuccessful administration.

ODT technologies

Table I: Target quality and performance attributes for orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs).
As discussed, the need for the ODT guidance was precipitated by the range of available ODT technologies and their differing product characteristics. The formulation and process considerations of these different technologies and the product characteristics relevant to their performance as an ODT are reviewed in the following section. Thin-film technology, while not falling under the definition of an ODT, is designed to meet the same objective of oral delivery without administrating water or chewing, and is also mentioned. The product attributes desirable for ODTs are summarized in Table I.

Current commercially available ODT technologies can be broadly categorized according to their method of manufacture as follows:

  • Lyophilized tablets
  • Compressed tablets
  • Other (including molded tablets, spray-dried powders, and sugar floss).

Table II: Orally disintegrating tablet technology platforms.
Examples of each ODT technology platform are provided in Table II.


blog comments powered by Disqus
LCGC E-mail Newsletters

Subscribe: Click to learn more about the newsletter
| Weekly
| Monthly
| Weekly

What role should the US government play in the current Ebola outbreak?
Finance development of drugs to treat/prevent disease.
Oversee medical treatment of patients in the US.
Provide treatment for patients globally.
All of the above.
No government involvement in patient treatment or drug development.
Finance development of drugs to treat/prevent disease.
Oversee medical treatment of patients in the US.
Provide treatment for patients globally.
All of the above.
No government involvement in patient treatment or drug development.
Jim Miller Outsourcing Outlook Jim MillerOutside Looking In
Cynthia Challener, PhD Ingredients Insider Cynthia ChallenerAdvances in Large-Scale Heterocyclic Synthesis
Jill Wechsler Regulatory Watch Jill Wechsler New Era for Generic Drugs
Sean Milmo European Regulatory WatchSean MilmoTackling Drug Shortages
New Congress to Tackle Health Reform, Biomedical Innovation, Tax Policy
Combination Products Challenge Biopharma Manufacturers
Seven Steps to Solving Tabletting and Tooling ProblemsStep 1: Clean
Legislators Urge Added Incentives for Ebola Drug Development
FDA Reorganization to Promote Drug Quality
Source: Pharmaceutical Technology,
Click here