What has been nanotechnology's greatest contribution to the healthcare sector in the last 5 years?
PBNJ Productions/Getty Images
Oliver: Nanoparticle medicine has experienced substantial growth in the last half decade. Advances include new material chemistry
for robust constructs, enhanced ligand co-targeting, formulation of true nanoparticles of ca. < 100 nm and a preliminary understanding
of factors influencing systemic distribution. The recent introduction of nanoparticle formulations for intravenous administration
has expanded their role as targeted drug carriers. In addition, nanoparticle enhancement of target organ specificity and linear
release of payload exceeds that of traditional PEGylated or liposomal formulations.
Professor Jamie C. Oliver
Nanoparticles as small as ca. 35 nm have entered clinic testing, demonstrating minimised non-target extraction by the kidney
and liver/spleen, which translates to an enhanced therapeutic window with low variations in systemic peak. These intentional
changes in the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of the active drug may alter the pharmacology. For instance, a Phase I oncology
study of a cyclodextrin-camptothecin nanoparticle (ca. 38 nm) developed at the California Institute of Technology (USA) demonstrated
long-term stabilisation of tumours with repeated low doses, but was unable to generate partial responses at the maximum tolerated
dose.1 Therefore, the ability to modify the pharmacology or tolerability of specific drug classes could be a great benefit.
Vela: Although still far from a cure, the area of healthcare where nanotechnology has made its greatest contributions is cancer.
Nanotechnology is enabling new applications in the areas of molecular imaging and early detection, in vivo imaging, reporters of efficacy, multifunctional therapeutics and research tools. Significant advances have been made in all
of these areas thanks to the funding awarded in 2004 by the US National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Alliance for Nanotechnology,
which funded eight Centers of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence and 12 Cancer Nanotechnology Platform Partnerships.
From a research perspective, the programme has already yielded more than 1000 peer-reviewed journal publications. From a clinical
translation perspective, 50 diagnostics and therapeutic companies have collaborated with this programme and 34 new companies
have been formed in the last 4 years — 10 of these new companies were formed just last year. Combined, they have a strong
intellectual property portfolio of more than 200 disclosures and patents filed. Additionally, 8–10 clinical trials are associated
with this programme and several companies are in pre-IND discussions with the FDA.
Drug delivery is another hot area where nanotechnology has made significant contributions. Today's drugs have issues such
as systemic and non-specific delivery, side effects and the need for organic solvents. With nanotechnology, however, advances
have been made towards improved localised delivery of drugs to tumour sites, improved efficacy and reduced side effects. Several
nanotech-enabled drugs can now be found on the market such as Abraxane (Abraxis BioSciences), an albumin-bound paclitaxel
for metastatic breast cancer; liposomal therapies Doxil, DaunoXome and Myocetp; and polymeric therapies, which include Genexol-PM
Outside of the NCI Alliance programme, nanotechnology has played a part in addressing an estimated 40%+ of compounds that
have poor solubility, which results in reduced efficacy and also makes them difficult to develop. Elan has led the way with
its acquisition of NanoCrystal Technology; the key benefits of the technology include, among others, improved biocompatibility,
increased absorption rate, dose reduction, faster formulation of compounds, increased performance through variable administration
routes (excluding injectable and inhalant delivery methods). Elan had its fifth product approved in late 2009 and has also
licensed this technology to J&J, AstraZeneca, Roche and Bristol-Myers Squibb, to name a few.
Elsewhere, significant advances have also been made in diagnostics, through the identification of specific disease biomarkers
and non-invasive imaging.
Liversidge: The launch of several commercially viable nanotechnology-based products must be, without question, the greatest achievement
made during the past 5–10 years in the field of nanotechnology. For Elan Drug Technologies, we saw five licensed products
launched using our NanoCrystal technology and achieved for our licensees who market these products annual in-market sales
of more than $1.8 billion. These and other nanotechnology-based products have moved the technology from the academic curiosity
that it was in the 1980s to one that can potentially deliver real solutions for the many compounds that are poorly water-soluble.
In our own pipeline at least, we have many projects at various stages of development and during the coming years we expect
they will make their way through development and approval.
Dr Gary Liversidge
Eaton: This is of course a regulated sector and whilst "nano" has been present for many years, the full impact is still years away.
The biggest contribution of the technology to date has probably been in diagnostics, with the miniaturisation of devices along
with developments in analytical instrumentation.
Professor Mike Eaton
The current impact for the pharma industry has been modest; probably more than $2 billion annually in sales. It is unrealistic
to expect much more in the short term, given the corresponding slow introduction of biologicals onto the market from the lab.
This subject is addressed further by the European Technology Platform in their roadmap.2