Particulate Quality Of Single-Use Filling Systems - Pharmaceutical Technology

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PharmTech Europe

Particulate Quality Of Single-Use Filling Systems

Pharmaceutical Technology Europe
Volume 23, Issue 9

Tubing and fittings

Tubing and fittings are typically not manufactured with specific claims for particulate cleanliness. However, as with biocontainer films, their manufacturing processes (i.e., extrusion and moulding) are not intrinsically particle generating, and particulate contamination can be minimised if manufactured and packaged under controlled, clean conditions. Incoming tubing and fittings from qualified suppliers can be screened for visible particles on a sampling basis and then rescreened more thoroughly during assembly into single-use systems. Visual inspection for particles within tubing and fittings can be limited, however, by translucency or opacity of the tubing material. Additional testing for particulates in lot samples of tubing and fittings may be performed as part of the quality control procedures for assembled single-use systems.

Assembled single-use systems

Even where particulate matter in single-use components is minimised, there remains a risk for particles entering the fluid path from the cutting of tubing and insertion of hosebarbs into tubing. Systems can be assembled in a Class 10000 cleanroom, but tube cutting and assembly methods should also be qualified by the supplier to demonstrate that visible particles are not generated and introduced into the fluid path during system assembly.

To assess the particulate quality of assembled tubing systems, some system suppliers have established quality-control programmes where single-use system lot samples, or master systems with "worst case" tubing connections and component combinations, are subjected to rinse fluid analysis for particles. Results can demonstrate that the fluid path rinse fluids meet USP <788> limits for microscopic particles and quantify any visible particles detected.

Plug-and-play versus pre-use flush

Many drug developers have embraced the plug-and-play concept of single-use systems to mean that pre-use flushing of the fluid path can also be eliminated. Whether or not flushing of single-use final filtration and/or filling systems is required to minimise particles in the fluid path must be determined by the end user, as defined by process requirements for drug product quality. Where flushing with water for injection or buffer is desired, systems can be designed with flush collection bags and protocols to minimise residual fluid path hold-up volumes that could dilute initial drug product effluent. Where sterilising filters are installed, this same procedure can be applied for wetting the filter before pre-use integrity testing, an increasing requirement for the marketing of drug products to some European countries. Alternatively, where appropriate, filters and the downstream fluid path can be flushed with product to minimise losses. Sterilised sterilising grade filters can be pre-use integrity tested "product wet" with the flush going to initial filled containers that may be used for quality control weight/volume checks or formulation analysis. In that way, initial flush can be accommodated to minimise particles without separate loss of product.

Particulate quality of post-filtration single-use system fluid paths for final filtration and filling should be considered as part of design requirements. Assessments of recoverable particle sizes and levels should be made in advance of clinical and GMP production.

If you are considering single-use disposable systems for final filling or any other applications, please email me your questions or suggestions for future Disposable Advisor topics.


1. USP 34–NF 29 General Chapter <1>, "Injections."

2. USP 34–NF 29 General Chapter <788>, "Particulate Matter in Injections."

3. EurPh, 5.0, 2.9.19 "Particulate Contamination: Sub-Visible Particles" (EDQM, Strasbourg, France, 2005), 253–255.

4. Japan Pharmacopoeia XV, 6.06, "Foreign Insoluble Matter Test for Injectables," in General Tests, Processes, and Apparatuses Section, p. 110–113.

5. ICH, Q4B, Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions — Annex 3 Test for Particulate Contamination: Subvisible Particles, General Chapter (Jan. 2009).

6. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Food and Drugs (Government Printing Office, Washington DC), Part 211.65, "Equipment."

7. EurPh, 5.0, 2.9.20, "Particulate Contamination: Visible Particles" (EDQM, Strasbourg, France, 2005) 255–256.

8. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Food and Drugs (Government Printing Office, Washington, DC), Part 211.72 "Filters."


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