Foam Granulation - Pharmaceutical Technology

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PharmTech Europe

Foam Granulation
The authors review developments in wet granulation using a twin-screw extruder.

Pharmaceutical Technology
Volume 37, Issue 3, pp. 68-72


1. E.I. Keleb, A. Vermeire, C. Vervaet, and J.P. Remon, Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 30 (6) 679-691 (2004).

2. L. Tan, A.J. Carella, Y. Ren, and J.B. Lo, Pharm. Dev. Tech. 16 (4) 302-315 (2011).

3. E.I. Keleb, A. Vermeire, C. Vervaet, and J.P. Remon, Inter. J. Pharm. 239 (1-2) 69-80 (2002).

4. E.I. Keleb, A. Vermeire, C. Vervaet, and J.P. Remon, Inter. J. Pharm. 273 (1-2) 183-194 (2004).

5. D. Djuric and P. Kleinebudde, J. Pharm. Sci. 97 (11) 4934-4942 (2008).

6. M.R. Thompson, S. Weatherley, R.N. Pukadyil, and P.J. Sheskey, Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 38 (7) 771-784 (2012).

7. W. Thiele, "Twin-Screw Extrusion and Screw Design," in Pharmaceutical Extrusion Technology, I. Ghebre-Sellassie and C. Martin, Eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, 2003), pp. 69-98.

8. D. Djuric, et al., Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 71 (1) 155-160 (2009).

9. M.R. Thompson and J. Sun, J. Pharm. Sci. 99 (4) 2090-2103 (2010).

10. R.M. Dhenge, et al., Pow. Tech., DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2012.05.045, May 29, 2012.

11. U. Shah, Pharm. Tech. 29 (6) 52-66 (2005).

12. B. Van Melkebeke, C. Vervaet, and J.P. Remon, Inter. J. Pharm. 356 (1-2) 224-230 (2008).

13. N.O. Lindberg, C. Tufvesson, P. Holm, and L. Olbjer, Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 14 (13) 1791-1798 (1988).

14. M.R. Thompson, B. Mu, and P.J. Sheskey, Pow. Tech., 228, 339-348 (2012).

15. C.M. Keary and P.J. Sheskey, Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm., 30 (8) 831-845 (2004).

16. M.X.L. Tan, L.S. Wong, K.H. Lum, and K.P. Hapgood, Chem. Eng. Sci., 64 (12) 2826-2836 (2009).

17. M.X.L. Tan and K.P. Hapgood, Pow. Tech., 218, 149-156 (2012).

18. S.L. Cantor, S. Kothari, and O.M.Y. Koo, Pow. Tech., 195, 15-24 (2009).

19. P. Sheskey, C. Keary, D. Clark, and K. Balwinski, Pharm. Tech., 31 (4) 94-108 (2007).

20. M.X.L. Tan and K.P. Hapgood, Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 89 (5) 526-536 (2011).

21. M.X.L. Tan and K.P. Hapgood, Chem. Eng. Sci. 66 (21) 5204-5211 (2011).

Michael R. Thompson* is an associate professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7, Canada, Tel: 905.525.9140,
, and Paul J. Sheskey is a principal research scientist at Larkin Laboratory, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan.

*To whom all correspondence should be addressed.

Submitted: Sept. 6, 2012. Accepted: Sept. 28, 2012.


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