Controlled Crystallization During Freeze-Drying

Aug 01, 2011
Volume 23, Issue 8

By Hans de Waard, Niels Grasmeijer, Wouter L.J. Hinrichs, Thomas De Beer and Henderik W. Frijlink

The authors discuss the preparation of lipophilic drug nanocrystals by controlled crystallisation during freeze-drying (CCDF). In-line Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor the crystallisation of the drug during freeze-drying to elucidate how the size of the drug crystals could be controlled. A three-way nozzle was used to create a spray freeze-drying process suitable for large-scale production.

This article was also published in our US sister publication Pharmaceutical Technology and can be read here.