Controlled Crystallization During Freeze-Drying

Aug 01, 2011

By Hans de Waard, Niels Grasmeijer, Wouter L.J. Hinrichs, Thomas De Beer and Henderik W. Frijlink

The authors discuss the preparation of lipophilic drug nanocrystals by controlled crystallisation during freeze-drying (CCDF). In-line Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor the crystallisation of the drug during freeze-drying to elucidate how the size of the drug crystals could be controlled. A three-way nozzle was used to create a spray freeze-drying process suitable for large-scale production.

This article was also published in our US sister publication Pharmaceutical Technology and can be read here.