The purpose of GMPs is to establish minimum requirements and standard practices to be followed in the manufacturing of drugs. Anvisa's revised GMP document, known as RDC 17, which applies to all drugs manufactured domestically for human use, took effect upon publication in April 2010. The document addresses quality, sanitation and hygiene, qualification and validation, products and contracts, and more. The primary updates affect computer-system validation and periodic product revision. Other specific changes address biological products, water for pharmaceutical uses, sterile products, and herbal medicines, according to the Rio de Janeiro Pharmacy Council.
"The quality of a certain drug is directly related, among other aspects, with practices used during its production," said Anvisa Inspection Manager Marcelo Vogler. "These rules are fundamentally important for Anvisa because they guarantee certain quality requirements for drugs available in the local market."Quality assurance
"The [GMP] rules are a result, mainly, of [global] disasters and catastrophes caused by faulty production practices as well as bad use and commercialization of pharmaceutical drugs," explains Vogler.
During the 20th century, inspection problems and quality issues with pharmaceutical drugs led to many deaths and serious health injuries.
One of the first major crises involved the use of elixir sulfanilamide. The ingredient was improperly used in a drug product and caused a mass poisoning in the United States in 1937. This incident, among others, led to the passing of the 1938 US Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to secure the supply chain of these products. In Brazil, the act was introduced mainly as a consequence of the Mercosur trade pact and the need to consolidate trade practices, according to Anvisa.
Then, in 1961, the sedative Thalidomide was withdrawn after it was discovered to cause birth defects in children whose mothers took the drug during pregnancy. Said to be "one of the biggest medical tragedies of modern times," the thalidomide case led to much stricter testing requirements for drugs worldwide.
"The Mercosur pact brought the need to establish a package of harmonized rules between the members in order to support the process being developed," explained Vogler.
Why revise the GMPs now? According to Vogler, all revisions to Brazil's pharmaceutical GMPs, including the most recent RDC 17 resolution, are based on international references, including standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO).
"WHO revises its recommendations periodically and, consequently, we follow such recommendations, and that is why there was the need to revise our national document as well," said Vogler.