The same phenomena that create lightning and thunderstorms are around us every day, producing incredibly high voltages, which cause sparks and shocks. Static electricity is a mighty force. Each year excessive electrical charge build cause explosions in the grain industry.1 Look around any flammable storage area and you will see both grounding bars on the wall and cables, from the grounding bars connected to the drums of solvents. Take any material safety data sheet (MSDS) for a powder and look in section V; it highlights that any dry powder has the potential to attract and store a charge.
Raman spectroscopy has become a commonly used technique for physicochemical analysis that possesses many advantages over other analytical techniques. It is a very attractive characterization tool, not least because it enables measurements in water. However, very few examples of its application in an aqueous environment exist in literature. This paper provides some recent applications of Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical material and process characterization when water is present.
Terpenes are widely used in topical preparations. This paper focuses on the skin penetration of terpenes depending on their physicochemical properties and influence of the type of dermatological vehicle that was used. The structure of human skin and the skin penetration process is also briefly described.