The human skin protects the body from physical, mechanical, and chemical insults while preventing endogenous water loss. This function is predominantly achieved by a thin (10–30 µm) cornified outermost layer-the stratum corneum (SC)-generated through terminal differentiation of the basal epidermal keratinocytes. The stratum corneum protects the human body, but also severely limits drug delivery into and across the skin.
Immobilizing the antibodies on a solid-phase support, such as a resin, and carrying out the conjugation of the payload-linker while the antibodies are bound to that support will prevent aggregation at its source.
Commonly referred to as the future of advanced pharmaceutical manufacturing, continuous manufacturing has gained major traction in the past 10 years to enable significant improvements in efficiency, safety, cost, and speed to market.